TBU: The Bible Unpacked: In-Depth Edition

II. God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit

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Chapter 4  Part II

God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit

See also:

The NT speaks of God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit as three identities, but also shows them as being related to each other in a unique unity. This is in part due to divine attributes and roles being attributed to each of them. Since the 4th century the church has viewed their relationship in terms of the Doctrine of the Trinity – the concept of them being three “persons” but one substance.

This close-knit relationship between God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit is still one of the most intriguing and debated aspects of the Bible. The following provides some basic “building blocks” for coming to terms with it.

Mutual Association

God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are very closely associated

Matt 28:19  Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them inu the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, … ▤ 

u Or into

The phrase “the name of” denotes a single name. Here it is applied to all three of the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. As such it points to a very close relationship between the three, indicative of such things as a unity of spirit and purpose.

1Cor 12:4-6  Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 5and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; 6and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who empowers them all in everyone. ▤ 

For comment on this passage, see the comment on 1Cor 12:4-6 – under God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit work together in unity of purpose . . ..

2Cor 13:14  The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. ▤ 

The close association of God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit is pointed to by the attributing of these complementary blessings to them at the one time.

1Cor 2:12, 16  Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. ▤ 16“For who has understood the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ. ▤ 

This correlates “the mind of Christ” with “the mind of the Lord” (v. 16a), the latter apparently referring to God as v. 16a is a quotation from Isaiah 40:13 where God is clearly in view. Additionally, Paul may well be implying that “we have the mind of Christ” (v. 16b) because we have received the Holy Spirit (v. 12). If so, this would link the Holy Spirit with “the mind of Christ”. As such these verses indicate that the three are very closely associated.

The Holy Spirit is identified with God . . .

See also:

2Sam 23:2-3  The Spirit of the Lord speaks by me; his word is on my tongue. 3The God of Israel has spoken; the Rock of Israel has said to me: When one rules justly over men, ruling in the fear of God, … ▤ 

This correlates the Holy Spirit speaking (v. 2) with God speaking (v. 3), thus identifying the Holy Spirit with God.

Ps 51:11  Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me. ▤ 

Quite possibly this is identifying the Holy Spirit with God’s presence (cf. The Holy Spirit is correlated with God’s presence).

Ezek 11:24-25  And the Spirit lifted me up and brought me in the vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea, to the exiles. Then the vision that I had seen went up from me. 25And I told the exiles all the things that the Lord had shown me. ▤ 

The phrase “the vision by the Spirit of God” (v. 24) may be speaking of the vision being given by the Spirit (cf. NCV, NIV). If this is the case then the phrase seems to correlate with “all the things that the Lord had shown me” (v. 25), identifying the Spirit with the Lord. Alternatively the phrase in question may be speaking of the Spirit bringing Ezekiel into Chaldea, in the vision (cf. CEV, GNT, NLT).

Mark 3:29  … but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin”— ▤ 

The fact that it is possible to blaspheme the Holy Spirit – along with the severity of the consequences – arguably identifies him with God and points to his deity.

Acts 5:3, 4b  But Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land? ▤ 4… You have not lied to men but to God.” ▤ 

Peter indicates that to lie to the Holy Spirit is to lie to God. As such Peter identifies the Holy Spirit with God.

1Cor 2:4-5  … and my speech and my message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men but in the power of God. ▤ 

This may well be correlating the Holy Spirit’s power with God’s power – thus identifying the Holy Spirit with God.

Acts 28:25-27  And disagreeing among themselves, they departed after Paul had made one statement: “The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the prophet: 26“‘Go to this people, and say, You will indeed hear but never understand, and you will indeed see but never perceive. 27For this people’s heart has grown dull, and with their ears they can barely hear, and their eyes they have closed; lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.’ ▤ 

The quotation (vv. 26-27) from Isaiah 6:8-10 is originally attributed to the “the voice of the Lord” (Isa 6:8), whereas here it is said to be spoken by the Holy Spirit. As such this identifies the Holy Spirit with God. Hebrews 10:15-17 immediately below is another occurrence of the NT attributing to the Holy Spirit words spoken by God in the OT (cf. Jeremiah 31:33-34). For other such examples see Hebrews 3:7-11 and Psalms 95:7-11.

Heb 10:15-17  And the Holy Spirit also bears witness to us; for after saying, 16“This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, declares the Lord: I will put my laws on their hearts, and write them on their minds,” 17then he adds, “I will remember their sins and their lawless deeds no more.” ▤ 

. . . and the Holy Spirit is identified with Jesus Christ

Rom 8:10-11  But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness. 11If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. ▤ 

The reference to Christ living in believers (v. 10) appears to be used interchangeably with the references to the Spirit living in believers (v. 11; cf. v. 9). As such, this passage identifies the Holy Spirit with Jesus Christ.

2Cor 3:17-18  Now the Lordv is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord,w are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another. For this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit. ▤ 

v Or this Lord

w Or reflecting the glory of the Lord

There are a number of interpretations of “the Lord is the Spirit” (v. 17) and “the Lord who is the Spirit” (v. 18). The ones that are arguably the most plausible are compatible with a literal reading, identifying the Holy Spirit with the Lord Jesus Christ.

Rev 2:8-11  And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write: ‘The words of the first and the last, who died and came to life. 9“‘I know your tribulation and your poverty (but you are rich) and the slanderx of those who say that they are Jews and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 10Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested, and for ten days you will have tribulation. Be faithful unto death, and I will give you the crown of life. 11He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will not be hurt by the second death.’ ▤ 

x Greek blasphemy

Verses 9-10 appear to be attributed to both Jesus Christ (v. 8) and the Holy Spirit (v. 11). Further similar examples of passages being attributed to both Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are found in chapters 2 and 3 of Revelation.

The Holy Spirit is described as both the Spirit of God and the Spirit of Jesus Christ

See also:

The theme of this subsection closely correlates the Holy Spirit with God and with Jesus Christ – and also associates Jesus Christ with God, with the one Spirit being said to be of them both. The first of the verses/passages in this subsection (Rom 8:9) speaks of the Holy Spirit as both the Spirit of God and the Spirit of Jesus Christ. The following four refer to the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of God, while the last four refer to the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of Jesus Christ.

Rom 8:9  You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. ▤ 

Judg 14:19a  And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him … ▤ 

Isa 63:10  But they rebelled and grieved his Holy Spirit; therefore he turned to be their enemy, and himself fought against them. ▤ 

1Cor 12:3  Therefore I want you to understand that no one speaking in the Spirit of God ever says “Jesus is accursed!” and no one can say “Jesus is Lord” except in the Holy Spirit. ▤ 

Eph 4:30  And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. ▤ 

Acts 16:6-7  And they went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. 7And when they had come up to Mysia, they attempted to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow them. ▤ 

The reference to “the Holy Spirit” and his work in v. 6 underlines the fact that “the Spirit of Jesus” in v. 7 is referring to the Holy Spirit.

Gal 4:6  And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” ▤ 

Phil 1:19  … for I know that through your prayers and the help of the Spirit of Jesus Christ this will turn out for my deliverance, … ▤ 

1Pet 1:10-11  Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied about the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired carefully, 11inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories. ▤ 

God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit work together in unity of purpose . . .

See also:

Matt 3:16-17  And when Jesus was baptized, immediately he went up from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened to him,y and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming to rest on him; 17and behold, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved Son,z with whom I am well pleased.” ▤ 

y Some manuscripts omit to him

z Or my Son, my (or the) Beloved

God’s anointing of Jesus with the Holy Spirit empowered Jesus for his mission – and so illustrates the three working together in unity of purpose.

John 20:21-22  Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even so I am sending you.” 22And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. ▤ 

The Father sent Jesus Christ to carry out his purposes and Jesus Christ sends his people empowered with the Holy Spirit to continue his work.

Acts 2:32-33  This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. 33Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. ▤ 

In v. 33, “this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing” refers to the manifestation of the Holy Spirit, apparent in the believers speaking in various unlearned languages (cf. vv. 1-11). God raised and exalted Jesus Christ and gave him the Holy Spirit to further God’s purposes.

Rom 1:1-4  Paul, a servanta of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, 2which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3concerning his Son, who was descended from Davidb according to the flesh 4and was declared to be the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, … ▤ 

a Or slave; Greek bondservant

b Or who came from the offspring of David

This reflects the fact that God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit worked together in Jesus’ mission and in bringing to fulfillment “the gospel of God” (v. 1).

1Cor 12:4-6  Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; 5and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; 6and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who empowers them all in everyone. ▤ 

One could interpret this as indicating that gifts are given by the Holy Spirit, for service to Jesus Christ, in which God works. However Paul is not necessarily trying to draw marked distinctions between the roles of the Spirit, the Lord Jesus and God in relation to “gifts”, “service” and “empowers”. Rather the fact that these three things are interrelated reflects the close association and unity in both purpose and arguably even function of the Holy Spirit, Jesus Christ and God. (cf. NBC)

2Cor 1:20-22  For all the promises of God find their Yes in him. That is why it is through him that we utter our Amen to God for his glory. 21And it is God who establishes us with you in Christ, and has anointed us, 22and who has also put his seal on us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee.c ▤ 

c Or down payment

The first statement (v. 20a) means that God’s promises are fulfilled in Jesus Christ (cf. NLT).

Eph 2:18, 22  For through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. ▤ 22In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God byd the Spirit. ▤ 

d Or in

In these verses “him” refers to Jesus Christ. Both verses speak of vital roles of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit in God’s relationship with his people.

Eph 3:16-17a  … that according to the riches of his glory he may grant you to be strengthened with power through his Spirit in your inner being, 17so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith … ▤ 

Note that “his” and “he” refer to God the Father.

1Pet 1:1b-2  To those who are elect exiles of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, 2according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood: May grace and peace be multiplied to you. ▤ 

1Jn 4:2  By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God, … ▤ 

John is speaking of being able to “know” or recognize if someone has the Holy Spirit. The verse reflects that God has sent the Holy Spirit in part to enable people to acknowledge aspects of Jesus Christ’s mission and its significance – here in particular the fact that Jesus Christ came in the form of a human being.

Rev 1:4-5a  John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, 5and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. ▤ 

As commented earlier, “the seven spirits” (v. 4) is usually interpreted as referring to the Holy Spirit in his fullness. As such this would be speaking of grace and peace being given by God, the Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ.

. . . Most prominently, they work together in saving people

Some of the references in the previous subsection also make reference to matters connected with salvation, but the references in this subsection speak of it more explicitly.

Titus 3:4-6  But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared, 5he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit, 6whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, … ▤ 

Acts 2:38-39  And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 39For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself.” ▤ 

Acts 5:31-32  God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins. 32And we are witnesses to these things, and so is the Holy Spirit, whom God has given to those who obey him. ▤ 

Verse 32 points to the Holy Spirit’s role in the salvation of people, witnessing to them. This work of the Holy Spirit is in conjunction with God’s will, and with what God has done through Jesus Christ (v. 31) to save people.

Rom 15:15-16  But on some points I have written to you very boldly by way of reminder, because of the grace given me by God 16to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. ▤ 

Gal 4:4-6  But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law, 5to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons. 6And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” ▤ 

One objective of God’s salvation was to enable us to become his children, which he has done through Jesus Christ. In conjunction with and subsequent to this, God enables us to relate to him as his children through the Holy Spirit.

2Thes 2:13  But we ought always to give thanks to God for you, brothers beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruitse to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth. ▤ 

e Some manuscripts chose you from the beginning

Although this verse does not specifically speak of Jesus Christ playing a role in saving people, the phrase “brothers beloved by the Lord” points to the will of Jesus Christ being in accord with this purpose and may even allude to his dying for this purpose, the ultimate expression of his love.

Heb 9:14  … how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify ourf conscience from dead works to serve the living God. ▤ 

f Some manuscripts your

The meaning of “dead works” is debatable, but quite possibly denotes the ultimately useless rituals of the law.

Note: Possible references to God in plural form

There are differences of opinion over the use of “our” and “us” in the statements attributed to God in the following verses. As the subheading indicates, some people interpret them as a plural form of the Deity, leading many to understand them as a reference to the Trinity – God as three persons in one being. Other interpretations offered by some evangelical commentators of the terms in question include: they are used to emphasize God’s majesty; they are an expression of the completeness or fullness of God’s being; and they are indicative of God addressing heavenly beings. Note that some commentators specifically reject the last interpretation, particularly in reference to Genesis 1:26.

Gen 1:26a  Then God said, “Let us make mang in our image, after our likeness. ▤ 

g The Hebrew word for man (adam) is the generic term for mankind and becomes the proper name Adam

Gen 3:22a  Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil. ▤ 

Gen 11:6-7  And the Lord said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. 7Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another’s speech.” ▤ 

Isa 6:8  And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?” Then I said, “Here am I! Send me.” ▤ 

Pray for persecuted Christians

Mutual Divine Attributes

The listings here and in the following section of mutual divine attributes and roles are not comprehensive. Note that the subsections generally are composed of six verses – of which the first pair refers to God, the second pair to Jesus Christ and the third pair to the Holy Spirit.

Omnipresence – God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are everywhere

See also:

Prov 15:3  The eyes of the Lord are in every place, keeping watch on the evil and the good. ▤ 

Jer 23:23-24  Am I a God at hand, declares the Lord, and not a God far away? 24Can a man hide himself in secret places so that I cannot see him? declares the Lord. Do I not fill heaven and earth? declares the Lord. ▤ 

Matt 18:20  For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I among them. ▤ 

The fact that Jesus Christ can promise to be with every gathering of Christians, points to him being everywhere. John 14:17 below makes a similar point regarding the Holy Spirit.

Eph 4:10  He [Jesus Christ] who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things.) ▤ 

Ps 139:7a  Where shall I go from your Spirit? ▤ 

John 14:17  … even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you. ▤ 

Omnipotence – they each have infinite, sovereign power

See also:

Job 42:2  I know that you can do all things, and that no purpose of yours can be thwarted. ▤ 

Jer 32:17  Ah, Lord God! It is you who have made the heavens and the earth by your great power and by your outstretched arm! Nothing is too hard for you. ▤ 

Phil 3:20-21  But our citizenship is in heaven, and from it we await a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, 21who will transform our lowly body to be like his glorious body, by the power that enables him even to subject all things to himself. ▤ 

This and Revelation 3:7 immediately below, illustrate Jesus Christ’s sovereign if not infinite power.

Rev 3:7  And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘The words of the holy one, the true one [Jesus Christ], who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens. ▤ 

Luke 1:35  And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be bornh will be called holy—the Son of God. ▤ 

h Some manuscripts add of you

As noted earlier in the chapter, this correlates – or at least associates – the Holy Spirit and his power with the power of God, pointing to the Holy Spirit having infinite power.

1Jn 4:4  Little children, you are from God and have overcome them, for he who is in you is greater than he who is in the world. ▤ 

Being greater than Satan points to the Holy Spirit having sovereign power.

Omniscience – they each have complete knowledge

See also:

1Jn 3:20b  God is greater than our heart, and he knows everything. ▤ 

Heb 4:13  And no creature is hidden from his sight, but all are naked and exposed to the eyes of him to whom we must give account. ▤ 

John 16:30  Now we know that you [Jesus] know all things and do not need anyone to question you; this is why we believe that you came from God. ▤ 

Acts 1:24  And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen … ▤ 

John 14:26  But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. ▤ 

1Cor 2:10b-11  For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God. 11For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. ▤ 

Divine glory

See also:

Num 14:21  But truly, as I live, and as all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord, … ▤ 

Ps 138:5  … and they shall sing of the ways of the Lord, for great is the glory of the Lord. ▤ 

Matt 25:31  When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne. ▤ 

1Cor 2:8  None of the rulers of this age understood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. ▤ 

2Cor 3:8  … will not the ministry of the Spirit have even more glory? ▤ 

This speaks of the glory of “the ministry of the Spirit”, associated with the new covenant (cf. v. 6) – encompassing both “the work of the Holy Spirit” (NIrV®; cf. CEV, GNT, NLT) and the administering of the new covenant which is of the Spirit (cf. AMP, NCV). Although not speaking directly of the glory of the Spirit himself, by association it does point to the Spirit’s glory (cf. 1Pet 4:14 ).

1Pet 4:14  If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of gloryi and of God rests upon you. ▤ 

i Some manuscripts insert and of power

The term “the Spirit of glory” appears to speak of the Holy Spirit’s own glory – “the glorious Spirit” (GNT, NCV, NLT; cf. CEV).

Eternal existence

See also:

The Bible portrays God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit as having always existed, and says that they will exist forever.

Ps 93:2  Your throne is established from of old; you are from everlasting. ▤ 

Deut 32:40b  [God:] As I live forever, … ▤ 

Rev 22:13  [Jesus Christ:] I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end. ▤ 

Alpha and Omega are the first and the last letters of the Greek alphabet, used together to depict Christ spanning all time – as do the subsequent pairings in the verse.

Rom 6:9  We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. ▤ 

John 14:16-17a  And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper,j to be with you forever, 17even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. ▤ 

j Or Advocate, or Counselor; also 14:26; 15:26; 16:7

Heb 9:14  … how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify ourk conscience from dead works to serve the living God. ▤ 

k Some manuscripts your

Holiness

See also:

Rev 4:8  And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and within, and day and night they never cease to say, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!” ▤ 

Rev 15:4a  Who will not fear, O Lord, and glorify your name? For you alone are holy. ▤ 

John 6:69  … and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God. ▤ 

Simon Peter is addressing Jesus Christ, applying a Messianic title to him.

Rev 3:7  And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘The words of the holy one [Jesus Christ], the true one, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens. ▤ 

Luke 12:12  … for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that very hour what you ought to say. ▤ 

Heb 10:15a  And the Holy Spirit also bears witness to us … ▤ 

Pray for persecuted Christians

Mutual Divine Roles

See also:

Common divine roles reflect the fact that God works through Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit. This is also reflected in some of the above cross references. Note that the latter roles are not exclusively divine in every sense, with believers also having roles akin to them.

God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are each ascribed a primary role in creation

See also:

Isa 44:24  Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, who formed you from the womb: “I am the Lord, who made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens, who spread out the earth by myself, … ▤ 

Neh 9:6  l “You are the Lord, you alone. You have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them; and you preserve all of them; and the host of heaven worships you. ▤ 

l Septuagint adds And Ezra said

John 1:3  All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. ▤ 

This and the following verse refer to Jesus Christ.

Col 1:16  For bym him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. ▤ 

m That is, by means of; or in

Job 33:4  The Spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life. ▤ 

Ps 104:30  When you send forth your Spirit,n they are created, and you renew the face of the ground. ▤ 

n Or breath

They each give spiritual or eternal life

Rom 6:23  For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. ▤ 

1Jn 5:11  And this is the testimony, that God gave us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. ▤ 

John 5:21  For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom he will. ▤ 

Note that this seems to be drawing a parallel between the Father raising the physically dead to life and Jesus giving spiritual life (to the spiritually dead). Jesus’ raising of the physically dead, particularly that of all people at the end of the age, is quite possibly also encompassed.

John 10:28  [Jesus:] I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of my hand. ▤ 

John 6:63a  It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. ▤ 

2Cor 3:6b  For the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life. ▤ 

They each sanctify God’s people

See also:

“Sanctify” basically means to “make holy”.

Lev 20:8  Keep my statutes and do them; I am the Lord who sanctifies you. ▤ 

1Thes 5:23  Now may the God of peace himself sanctify you completely, and may your whole spirit and soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. ▤ 

Eph 5:25-27  Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, 26that he might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, 27so that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish.o ▤ 

o Or holy and blameless

Heb 2:11  For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one source.p That is why he is not ashamed to call them brothers,q … ▤ 

p Greek all are of one

q Or brothers and sisters. The plural Greek word adelphoi (translated “brothers”) refers to siblings in a family. In New Testament usage, depending on the context, adelphoi may refer either to men or to both men and women who are siblings (brothers and sisters) in God’s family, the church; also verse 12

Rom 15:16  … to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. ▤ 

1Pet 1:2  … according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood: May grace and peace be multiplied to you. ▤ 

This seems to speak of both the Holy Spirit and Jesus Christ having a role in making God the Father’s people holy, with “sprinkling with his blood” most likely referring to purification by Christ’s blood (cf. GNT, NCV, NLT).

They each are constantly with God’s people, living in them

See also:

Deut 31:8  It is the Lord who goes before you. He will be with you; he will not leave you or forsake you. Do not fear or be dismayed. ▤ 

1Jn 3:24  Whoever keeps his commandments abides in God,r and Gods in him. And by this we know that he abides in us, by the Spirit whom he has given us. ▤ 

r Greek him

s Greek he

Matt 28:20b  [Jesus:] And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age. ▤ 

Gal 2:20a  I have been crucified with Christ. It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me. ▤ 

John 14:17  … even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you. ▤ 

2Tim 1:14  By the Holy Spirit who dwells within us, guard the good deposit entrusted to you. ▤ 

They each strengthen and empower God’s people

See also:

Isa 41:10b  I am your God; I will strengthen you, I will help you, I will uphold you with my righteous right hand. ▤ 

2Tim 1:7  … for God gave us a spirit not of fear but of power and love and self-control. ▤ 

Phil 4:13  I can do all things through him who strengthens me. ▤ 

The reference is to Jesus Christ strengthening (cf. CEV, GNT, NCV, NLT).

1Tim 1:12  I thank him who has given me strength, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he judged me faithful, appointing me to his service, … ▤ 

Eph 3:16  … that according to the riches of his glory he may grant you to be strengthened with power through his Spirit in your inner being, … ▤ 

God strengthens and empowers people through the Holy Spirit.

Acts 1:8  But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. ▤ 

They each guide and teach God’s people

See also:

Ps 48:14  … that this is God, our God forever and ever. He will guide us forever.t ▤ 

t Septuagint; another reading is (compare Jerome, Syriac) He will guide us beyond death

Isa 48:17  Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: “I am the Lord your God, who teaches you to profit, who leads you in the way you should go. ▤ 

John 10:3-4  To him the gatekeeper opens. The sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4When he has brought out all his own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice. ▤ 

Jesus was applying this analogy to himself – the good shepherd. The analogy is indicative of his guidance of his people.

2Tim 2:7  Think over what I say, for the Lord will give you understanding in everything. ▤ 

As is typical in Paul’s letters, “the Lord” is more than likely a reference to Jesus Christ.

Gal 5:18  But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. ▤ 

John 14:26  But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. ▤ 

They each give God’s people joy and peace

See also:

Ps 4:7  You have put more joy in my heart than they have when their grain and wine abound. ▤ 

Rom 15:13  May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope. ▤ 

John 15:11  These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be full. ▤ 

Jesus is the speaker in both this and the following verse.

John 14:27  Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your hearts be troubled, neither let them be afraid. ▤ 

Rom 8:6  For to set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace. ▤ 

Gal 5:22-23  But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. ▤ 

Pray for persecuted Christians