TBU: The Bible Unpacked: In-Depth Edition

I.  General

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Chapter 4  Part I

General

See also:

The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God, as often indicated in the Bible. This assertion is reflected by the Holy Spirit’s divine and imposing attributes. However, the Bible also distinguishes the Holy Spirit from God, portraying him as a personal being in his own right.

(Note that in regard to the Holy Spirit and God’s people, see II. God’s Holy Spirit in His People, cross referenced above.)

The Holy Spirit of God

The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God . . .

See also:

The Holy Spirit is God’s spirit. As such one should bear in mind that when the Bible speaks of the Holy Spirit, it is in effect speaking of God himself.

Gen 1:2  The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. ▤ 

1Sam 10:6  Then the Spirit of the Lord will rush upon you, and you will prophesy with them and be turned into another man. ▤ 

Isa 61:1a  The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me … ▤ 

Matt 10:20  For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. ▤ 

1Cor 2:11  For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. ▤ 

The parallel drawn between the spirit of a person and the Spirit of God emphasizes that the Holy Spirit is God’s spirit.

1Cor 6:11  And such were some of you. But you were washed, you were sanctified, you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God. ▤ 

2Cor 3:3  And you show that you are a letter from Christ delivered by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts.y ▤ 

y Greek fleshly hearts

Rom 8:11  If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. ▤ 

Eph 4:30  And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. ▤ 

Ps 51:11  Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me. ▤ 

. . . God refers to the Holy Spirit as his Spirit

Note that “Spirit” always refers to the Holy Spirit.

Isa 42:1  [God:] Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights; I have put my Spirit upon him; he will bring forth justice to the nations. ▤ 

Isa 59:21  “And as for me, this is my covenant with them,” says the Lord: “My Spirit that is upon you, and my words that I have put in your mouth, shall not depart out of your mouth, or out of the mouth of your offspring, or out of the mouth of your children’s offspring,” says the Lord, “from this time forth and forevermore.” ▤ 

Ezek 39:29  And I will not hide my face anymore from them, when I pour out my Spirit upon the house of Israel, declares the Lord God. ▤ 

Hag 2:5b  [God:] My Spirit remains in your midst. Fear not. ▤ 

The Holy Spirit is correlated with God’s presence

Ps 51:11  Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me. ▤ 

As David no doubt was aware and arguably was even suggesting, his two requests are effectively asking the same thing; one involves the other.

Ps 139:7-8  Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? 8If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! ▤ 

Acts 10:38  … how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power. He went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him. ▤ 

This verse appears to correlate Jesus having the Holy Spirit with God’s presence being with him.

Eph 2:22  In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God byz the Spirit. ▤ 

z Or in

As perhaps is better reflected in the text note’s rendering, quite possibly this is speaking of the church being a dwelling place “where God lives by his Spirit” (NLT; cf. GNT, NCV, NIV).

1Jn 3:24  Whoever keeps his commandments abides in God,a and Godb in him. And by this we know that he abides in us, by the Spirit whom he has given us. ▤ 

a Greek him

b Greek he

This verse and 4:13 below correlate the Holy Spirit with God’s presence by asserting that the fact that believers have God’s Spirit verifies that God lives in them.

1Jn 4:13  By this we know that we abide in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit. ▤ 

  • The Holy Spirit is also correlated with Jesus Christ’s presence:

Rom 8:9-10  You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 10But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness. ▤ 

This links the Holy Spirit living in a person with Jesus Christ living in them. Ephesians 3:16-17 also appears to make this link: “… strengthened with power through his Spirit in your inner being,  17 so that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith …”

The Holy Spirit is from God

See also:

1Cor 2:12  Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. ▤ 

1Cor 6:19a  Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? ▤ 

John 15:26  But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me. ▤ 

Acts 1:4-5  And while stayingc with them he ordered them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, “you heard from me; 5for John baptized with water, but you will be baptized withd the Holy Spirit not many days from now.” ▤ 

c Or eating

d Or in

Acts 2:33  Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. ▤ 

Particularly in light of the context – the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost – the middle clause appears to be referring to Jesus Christ receiving from the God “the promised Holy Spirit” (NIV®; cf. AMP, CEV, GNT, NCV, NLT).

God and the Holy Spirit know each other’s mind

The fact that God and the Holy Spirit are spoken of as knowing each other’s mind is indicative of the Holy Spirit being the Spirit of God.

Rom 8:27  And he who searches hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, becausee the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. ▤ 

e Or that

Note that a further aspect of God and the Holy Spirit’s relationship is shown here by the Holy Spirit interceding “according to the will of God” – no doubt characteristic of all that the Holy Spirit does. This also points to the Holy Spirit having an intimate knowledge of God’s will and so also of God’s mind.

1Cor 2:9-11  But, as it is written, “What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man imagined, what God has prepared for those who love him”— 10these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God. 11For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. ▤ 

The “depths of God” (v. 10) denotes “what is deep in the mind of God” (CEV), the “deep secrets” of God (NCV, NLT).

  • The Holy Spirit and the mind of Jesus Christ:

1Cor 2:12, 15-16  Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. ▤ 15The spiritual person judges all things, but is himself to be judged by no one. 16“For who has understood the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ. ▤ 

This suggests a correlation between having the Holy Spirit (v. 12) and having the mind of Christ (v. 16). In turn this points to the Holy Spirit knowing the mind of Christ, as he knows the mind of God.

Pray for persecuted Christians

The Holy Spirit’s Being

In addition to the following charactersitics, as the Holy “Spirit”, the Holy Spirit has no visible form.

The Holy Spirit is everywhere

Ps 139:7-8  Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? 8If I ascend to heaven, you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! ▤ 

Verse 7 links the Holy Spirit with God’s presence, and so along with v. 8 implies that the Holy Spirit is omnipresent – i.e. everywhere.

John 14:17  … even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you. ▤ 

The fact that the Holy Spirit dwells in each of God’s people (cf. 2Tim 1:14 ; God Gives the Holy Spirit to His People) – and in each group of them (cf. Eph 2:22 ) – shows that he is everywhere.

2Tim 1:14  By the Holy Spirit who dwells within us, guard the good deposit entrusted to you. ▤ 

Eph 2:22  In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God byf the Spirit. ▤ 

f Or in

As noted earlier, this may well be speaking of the church being a dwelling place where God lives by his Spirit (cf. GNT, NLT, NCV, NIV).

The Holy Spirit is eternal

Heb 9:14  … how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify ourg conscience from dead works to serve the living God. ▤ 

g Some manuscripts your

The “eternal Spirit” is probably speaking of the Holy Spirit, although there are other opinions – as reflected in the NCV text note on “Spirit” which says: “This refers to the Holy Spirit, to Christ’s own spirit or to the spiritual and eternal nature of his sacrifice.”

John 14:16-17a  And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Helper,h to be with you forever, 17even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. ▤ 

h Or Advocate, or Counselor; also 14:26; 15:26; 16:7

“Helper” is a title for the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit has great power . . .

Isa 11:2  And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. ▤ 

1Jn 4:4  Little children, you are from God and have overcome them, for he who is in you is greater than he who is in the world. ▤ 

The “he who is in you” is most likely referring to the Holy Spirit (cf. vv. 2, 6). As such, the description of the Holy Spirit as greater than Satan – “he who is in the world” – is indicative of the Spirit’s great power.

Luke 1:35  And the angel answered her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be borni will be called holy—the Son of God. ▤ 

i Some manuscripts add of you

This correlates – or at least associates – the Holy Spirit with the power of God.

Rom 15:13  May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope. ▤ 

Acts 8:39-40  And when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord carried Philip away, and the eunuch saw him no more, and went on his way rejoicing. 40But Philip found himself at Azotus, and as he passed through he preached the gospel to all the towns until he came to Caesarea. ▤ 

This appears to indicate that the Holy Spirit miraculously removed Philip and took him to Azotus.

Isa 32:15  … until the Spirit is poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness becomes a fruitful field, and the fruitful field is deemed a forest. ▤ 

Such is the Holy Spirit’s power that he can bring about renewal of the extent portrayed here. Note that while this appears to firstly refer to the Holy Spirit effecting physical blessings, it is often understood to have a spiritual application – particularly with the reference to the Holy Spirit as being “poured upon us”. As such this would attest to the Holy Spirit renewing God’s people.

. . . and the Holy Spirit can enable people to do great things

See also:

Judg 14:6a, 19a  Then the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and although he had nothing in his hand, he tore the lion in pieces as one tears a young goat. ▤ 19And the Spirit of the Lord rushed upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon and struck down thirty men of the town and took their spoil and gave the garments to those who had told the riddle. ▤ 

Zec 4:6-7  Then he said to me, “This is the word of the Lord to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the Lord of hosts. 7Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!’” ▤ 

Zerubbabel would not rebuild the temple with the aid of outstanding human might or power, but through the power and direction of the Holy Spirit – who would overcome mountainous obstacles.

Matt 12:28  But if it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. ▤ 

Acts 1:8  But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth. ▤ 

On receiving “power (ability, efficiency, and might)” (AMP) when the Holy Spirit came upon them, the disciples would be enabled to witness for Christ far and wide.

Rom 15:18-19  For I will not venture to speak of anything except what Christ has accomplished through me to bring the Gentiles to obedience—by word and deed, 19by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God—so that from Jerusalem and all the way around to Illyricum I have fulfilled the ministry of the gospel of Christ; … ▤ 

Grammatically the “signs and wonders” (v. 19) may not be directly attributed to “the power of the Spirit”, but this could well be implied (cf. CEV, NLT). Even if this is not the case, these verses still do attest to the power of the Holy Spirit enabling people to accomplish great things.

1Cor 2:4-5  … and my speech and my message were not in plausible words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men but in the power of God. ▤ 

The last clause in v. 4 appears to associate the Holy Spirit with the power which, through Paul’s preaching, led the Corinthians to faith (cf. CEV, GNT, NCV, NIV, NLT). As such, the Holy Spirit’s power is here correlated with God’s power (v. 5).

1Pet 3:18-20  For Christ also sufferedj once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, 19in whichk he went and proclaimedl to the spirits in prison, 20becausem they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water. ▤ 

j Some manuscripts died

k Or the Spirit, in whom

l Or preached

m Or when

If the rendering in the first text note is preferred (cf. NIV, NKJV, NLT) this would then attest to the Holy Spirit’s power by speaking of his role in raising Jesus Christ and empowering him to preach to the “spirits in prison” (v. 19a). Note that these “spirits” could be referring to human spirits or to fallen angels or demons – leaving vv. 19-20 open to various interpretations.

The Holy Spirit has great wisdom and knowledge . . .

See also:

Isa 11:2  And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. ▤ 

Such descriptions of the Holy Spirit (cf. Eph 1:17 ) imply that he has great wisdom and knowledge.

Isa 40:13-14  Who has measuredn the Spirit of the Lord, or what man shows him his counsel? 14Whom did he consult, and who made him understand? Who taught him the path of justice, and taught him knowledge, and showed him the way of understanding? ▤ 

n Or has directed

Arguably the Spirit is partially in view, along with God, in all of vv. 13-14. This is supported by the alternative rendering in the text note, which would more clearly place the Holy Spirit’s wisdom/counsel in view at the start. As such these verses point to the self-sufficiency and pre-eminence of the Holy Spirit’s wisdom and knowledge.

John 14:26  But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. ▤ 

Acts 6:3, 9-10  Therefore, brothers,o pick out from among you seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we will appoint to this duty. ▤ 9Then some of those who belonged to the synagogue of the Freedmen (as it was called), and of the Cyrenians, and of the Alexandrians, and of those from Cilicia and Asia, rose up and disputed with Stephen. 10But they could not withstand the wisdom and the Spirit with which he was speaking. ▤ 

o Or brothers and sisters

This suggests that Stephen’s profound wisdom was a product of the Holy Spirit – indicative of the Holy Spirit having great wisdom.

1Cor 2:9-11  But, as it is written, “What no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man imagined, what God has prepared for those who love him”— 10these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God. 11For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. ▤ 

Verse 10b is saying that the Holy Spirit “searches out all things” (NCV™; cf. NLT), “exploring and examining everything” (AMP). The Holy Spirit’s complete wisdom and knowledge is further attested to by the fact that he comprehends and so knows the thoughts of God (v. 11b).

Eph 1:17  … that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of him, … ▤ 

Quite possibly Paul has in view “the Spirit, who will make you wise and reveal God to you” (GNT; cf. CEV).

Eph 3:4-5  When you read this, you can perceive my insight into the mystery of Christ, 5which was not made known to the sons of men in other generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit. ▤ 

Knowing such a “mystery” attests to the Holy Spirit’s great knowledge.

. . . The Holy Spirit even has knowledge of the future

Luke 2:26  And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. ▤ 

Acts 1:16  Brothers, the Scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to those who arrested Jesus. ▤ 

This speaks of the Holy Spirit giving a prophecy (cf. 1Pet 1:10-11 ), illustrating that the Holy Spirit has knowledge of the future. Additionally, note that similarly the Bible speaks at times of the Holy Spirit speaking through “prophets” (cf. God has given his word by the Holy Spirit . . .; . . . Further mention of Scripture coming by the Holy Spirit).

Acts 20:23  … except that the Holy Spirit testifies to me in every city that imprisonment and afflictions await me. ▤ 

Acts 21:11  And coming to us, he took Paul’s belt and bound his own feet and hands and said, “Thus says the Holy Spirit, ‘This is how the Jews at Jerusalem will bind the man who owns this belt and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.’” ▤ 

1Tim 4:1  Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, … ▤ 

1Pet 1:10-11  Concerning this salvation, the prophets who prophesied about the grace that was to be yours searched and inquired carefully, 11inquiring what person or time the Spirit of Christ in them was indicating when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the subsequent glories. ▤ 

Pray for persecuted Christians

The Holy Spirit’s Personhood

The Holy Spirit is distinguished from God and Jesus Christ

See also:

Although perhaps to varying degrees, each of the following verses speak of the Holy Spirit as being distinct from God and from Jesus Christ.

John 14:26  But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. ▤ 

Jesus is the speaker here, as is the case in 15:26 below.

John 15:26  But when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness about me. ▤ 

Acts 2:32-33  This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. 33Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. ▤ 

2Cor 13:14  The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all. ▤ 

Eph 4:4-6  There is one body and one Spirit—just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call— 5one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. ▤ 

2Thes 2:13  But we ought always to give thanks to God for you, brothers beloved by the Lord, because God chose you as the firstfruitsp to be saved, through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth. ▤ 

p Some manuscripts chose you from the beginning

Rev 1:4-5a  John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, 5and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. ▤ 

The term “the seven spirits” (v. 4) is usually interpreted as referring to the Holy Spirit – “the sevenfold Spirit” (NIV® text note; cf. AMP) – in his fullness or perfection.

The Holy Spirit has a mind

See also:

Rom 8:27  And he who searches hearts knows what is the mind of the Spirit, becauseq the Spirit intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. ▤ 

q Or that

Acts 13:2  While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” ▤ 

This suggests that the Holy Spirit has a mind, telling of him giving a command (“Set apart for me…”) and having called people to do a certain task.

Acts 15:28  For it has seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay on you no greater burden than these requirements: … ▤ 

1Cor 12:11  All these are empowered by one and the same Spirit, who apportions to each one individually as he wills. ▤ 

That the Holy Spirit “wills” such things is indicative of him having his own mind.

The Holy Spirit is referred to with personal pronouns

See also:

The fact that personal pronouns are used of the Holy Spirit suggests that he is an entity in his own right, as well as alluding to him being a personal being.

John 14:17  … even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him. You know him, for he dwells with you and will be in you. ▤ 

John 16:7-8, 13-14  Nevertheless, I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send him to you. 8And when he comes, he will convict the world concerning sin and righteousness and judgment: ▤ 13When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. ▤ 

Acts 10:19-20  And while Peter was pondering the vision, the Spirit said to him, “Behold, three men are looking for you. 20Rise and go down and accompany them without hesitation, for I have sent them.” ▤ 

Acts 13:2  While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” ▤ 

Here the personal pronouns “me” and “I” (cf. Acts 10:19-20 ) both do refer to the Holy Spirit.

Rom 8:16, 26  The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, ▤ 26Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. ▤ 

1Cor 2:12  Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. ▤ 

1Cor 6:19a  Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God? ▤ 

The Holy Spirit has personal characteristics

Prominent amongst the characteristics of the Holy Spirit shown in the following verses are: holiness (Ps 51:11; Acts 10:44-45); goodness (Neh 9:20a; Ps 143:10; Gal 5:22), and love (Rom 15:30; Gal 5:22-23a).

Ps 51:11  Cast me not away from your presence, and take not your Holy Spirit from me. ▤ 

Acts 10:44-45  While Peter was still saying these things, the Holy Spirit fell on all who heard the word. 45And the believers from among the circumcised who had come with Peter were amazed, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out even on the Gentiles. ▤ 

Neh 9:20  You gave your good Spirit to instruct them and did not withhold your manna from their mouth and gave them water for their thirst. ▤ 

Ps 143:10  Teach me to do your will, for you are my God! Let your good Spirit lead me on level ground! ▤ 

Rom 15:30  I appeal to you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to strive together with me in your prayers to God on my behalf, … ▤ 

The phrase “the love of the Spirit” refers to the love that the Holy Spirit gives God’s people (cf. GNT, NCV, NLT).

Gal 5:22-23  But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. ▤ 

Each of these characteristics is described as a “fruit of the Spirit” because – like fruit from a tree – their source and means of growth is the Holy Spirit. Arguably this implies that as their source and as the one who fosters them, the Holy Spirit’s own character is reflected in them. This also applies to “the love of the Spirit” in Romans 15:30 above, which refers to the love that the Holy Spirit gives God’s people (cf. GNT, NCV, NLT).

Heb 10:29  How much worse punishment, do you think, will be deserved by the one who has spurned the Son of God, and has profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has outraged the Spirit of grace? ▤ 

Isa 63:10  But they rebelled and grieved his Holy Spirit; therefore he turned to be their enemy, and himself fought against them. ▤ 

This indicates that the Holy Spirit has feelings.

  • The Holy Spirit is the truth:

1Jn 5:6  This is he who came by water and blood—Jesus Christ; not by the water only but by the water and the blood. And the Spirit is the one who testifies, because the Spirit is the truth. ▤ 

This implies that the Holy Spirit is more than just truthful, actually correlating the Holy Spirit with truth (cf. John 16:13 ). As such, this also points to righteousness being a personal characteristic of the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit communicates . . .

See also:

2Sam 23:2  The Spirit of the Lord speaks by me; his word is on my tongue. ▤ 

Here “his word” probably refers to God’s word (cf. v. 3), but it could instead refer to the Holy Spirit’s word. Contextually – as always – the two are in effect the same.

Matt 10:20  For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. ▤ 

John 16:13-14  When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth, for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come. 14He will glorify me, for he will take what is mine and declare it to you. ▤ 

Acts 10:19-20  And while Peter was pondering the vision, the Spirit said to him, “Behold, three men are looking for you. 20Rise and go down and accompany them without hesitation, for I have sent them.” ▤ 

Acts 13:2  While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” ▤ 

Acts 20:23  … except that the Holy Spirit testifies to me in every city that imprisonment and afflictions await me. ▤ 

Acts 21:11  And coming to us, he took Paul’s belt and bound his own feet and hands and said, “Thus says the Holy Spirit, ‘This is how the Jews at Jerusalem will bind the man who owns this belt and deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.’” ▤ 

Rom 8:16  The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, … ▤ 

Rom 8:26b  For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words. ▤ 

Gal 4:6  And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” ▤ 

Eph 3:5  … which was not made known to the sons of men in other generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit. ▤ 

1Tim 4:1  Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, … ▤ 

Heb 3:7  Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, “Today, if you hear his voice, … ▤ 

Rev 2:7a  He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. ▤ 

Rev 22:17a  The Spirit and the Bride say, “Come.” ▤ 

. . . and the Holy Spirit interacts in other ways

Matt 4:1  Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. ▤ 

Acts 9:31  So the church throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria had peace and was being built up. And walking in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort of the Holy Spirit, it multiplied. ▤ 

One way that the Holy Spirit interacts is that it comforts the church.

Acts 16:6-7  And they went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. 7And when they had come up to Mysia, they attempted to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus did not allow them. ▤ 

Acts 20:28  Pay careful attention to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care for the church of God,r which he obtained with his own blood.s ▤ 

r Some manuscripts of the Lord

s Or with the blood of his Own

Rom 8:14  For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sonst of God. ▤ 

t See discussion on “sons” in the Preface

Rom 8:26a  Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. ▤ 

Rom 15:30  I appeal to you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to strive together with me in your prayers to God on my behalf, … ▤ 

As noted earlier, “the love of the Spirit” refers to the love that the Holy Spirit gives God’s people (cf. GNT, NCV, NLT).

1Cor 12:11  All these are empowered by one and the same Spirit, who apportions to each one individually as he wills. ▤ 

This is speaking of the work of the Holy Spirit in bestowing spiritual gifts on believers (cf. vv. 7-10).

Note: Like a person, the Holy Spirit can be treated wrongly

Matt 12:32  And whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come. ▤ 

There are a number of interpretations of what Jesus meant by speaking against or blaspheming (cf. Mark 3:29) the Holy Spirit. One of the most prominent is that Jesus meant that by attributing to Satan what realistically could only have been the work of the Holy Spirit (v. 24), the Pharisees were willfully rejecting the Holy Spirit – and thus God – a sin that can never be forgiven; “an eternal sin” (Mark 3:29).

Acts 5:3, 9  But Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land? ▤ 9But Peter said to her, “How is it that you have agreed together to test the Spirit of the Lord? Behold, the feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out.” ▤ 

Ananias and his wife Sapphira conspired to try to deceive the church and thus also the Holy Spirit (v. 3), in effect testing the Holy Spirit (v. 9).

Acts 7:51  You stiff-necked people, uncircumcised in heart and ears, you always resist the Holy Spirit. As your fathers did, so do you. ▤ 

Heb 10:29  How much worse punishment, do you think, will be deserved by the one who has spurned the Son of God, and has profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has outraged the Spirit of grace? ▤ 

The phrase “outraged the Spirit” can also be translated as “insulted the Spirit” (NASB; cf. AMP, CEV, GNT, NCV, NIV, NKJV), clearly indicating that the Holy Spirit can be treated wrongly.

Isa 63:10  But they rebelled and grieved his Holy Spirit; therefore he turned to be their enemy, and himself fought against them. ▤ 

Eph 4:30-31  And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. 31Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. ▤ 

We grieve the Holy Spirit by sinning (cf. Isa 63:10 ). In giving this command not to do so, Paul may have had in mind the sins he then lists in v. 31 and also possibly “corrupting talk” (cf. v. 29).

Pray for persecuted Christians